X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF)

XRF is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine a full range of light to heavy elements by pressed pellet or fused disc. Pressed pellet is a low cost test option which is suitable for large numbers of samples (usually ppm levels) where the matrix of the material is generally consistent. Good examples of this application are copper and nickel determination in Merensky, UG2 and Platreef mineralization of the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa, or analysis of uranium hosted by siliceous rocks.

Borate fusions followed by XRF is the analytical technique most suited to certain ore types such iron and manganese ores, phosphates, limestones and general silicates. The samples are fused using automated fusers and are analysed using high powered wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometers.

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

Polycrystalline phases of a solid material are determined by X-Ray Powder Diffraction.

Angles of diffraction originating from a sample which is irradiated by a beam of monochromatic X-Rays, are measured and recorded by a diffractometer. Based on the originating pattern, a crystal can be identified and characterized.

Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

ICP-OES is one of the most versatile methods of inorganic chemistry covering large ranges from ppm to percentage levels of most elements. A variety of digestions are offered with this technique such as aqua regia (oxide, sulphide and carbonate material, but usually not silicates), four acid (provides a total dissolution of most elements except for a few such as Cr, V and Ti) and peroxide fusion (suitable if the non-soluble elements of the four acid digestion are required). Other dissolution techniques such as acid soluble copper (oxide copper) are also available.

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS)

This technique is usually done in conjunction with ICP-OES and allows analysis down to lower ppm levels and sometimes ppb levels.

Leco, Uv-Vis, And Other Instrumental Techniques

These techniques are for analyses of carbon and sulphur, chloride, cyanide, amongst others.